It would be impossible to overestimate the importance of the Japanese market.
Japan is the United States' fourth largest export market, after Canada, Mexico and China, and Japan remains the world's third largest economy, with a GDP slightly smaller than the Chinese economy. Dependent on exports, Japan was particularly hard hit by the recession in 2008, which worsened in 2011 with the Tsunami.
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Export to Japan: Patience is an art when doing business ...
Market Entry Strategy . U.S. companies wishing to enter the Japanese market should consider hiring a reputable, well-connected agent or distributor, and cultivating business contacts through frequent personal visits. Japan’s business culture attaches a high degree of importance to personal relationships, and these take time to establish and nurture. Patience and repeated follow-up are typically required to clinch a deal. The customs and pace of deal-making in Japan are quite different from the United States. U.S. business executives are advised to retain a professional interpreter, as many Japanese executives and decision-makers do not speak English, or prefer to speak Japanese.
Customs Regulations . Any person wishing to import goods must declare them to the Director-General of Customs and obtain an import permit after necessary examination of the goods concerned. The formalities start with the lodging of an import declaration and end with issuance of an import permit after the necessary examination and payment of Customs duty and excise tax.
Nearly all customs difficulties result from first time applications. Japanese customs officials are generally helpful when it comes to explaining procedures and regulations, and once these are understood and followed, difficulties are usually minimal. All importers must file a declaration with Japan Customs. For most goods, the declaration must be made after the goods have been taken into a bonded customs (hozei) area or other designated place; items requiring approval by the Director-General of Customs can be declared before they are taken to the hozei area. The declaration must include details of the quantity and value of the goods to be imported as well as an invoice, a packing list, freight account, insurance certificate, and certificate of origin (for, inter alia, preferential rates of tariff), where applicable. Additional documentation may be required, for example, for goods requiring an import license or health certificate. Once the documentation is verified by Customs, an import permit is issued.
Using an Agent or Distributor. For some companies, establishing a direct presence in Japan is the best way to enter the Japanese market, but this can be an extremely expensive strategy. The use of agents or distributors is a more realistic first step for most small- or medium-sized U.S. firms, but this approach requires great care in the selection of the representative and the establishment of the terms of agreement.
U.S. firms are cautioned against trying to use contact lists for “cold calls” on prospective Japanese agents. Most Japanese business people prefer to do business with someone only when they have been properly introduced and have met face-to-face, and an introduction by a familiar "go-between" typically helps to dispel reluctance. Distributors in Japan usually cover a specific territory or industry. Importers are often appointed as sole agents for the entire country. In some cases granting exclusivity may be necessary to ensure a strong commitment by the Japanese agent towards expanding sales.
Given the close-knit nature of business circles and the traditional wariness towards foreign suppliers in Japan, replacing an agent or distributor could damage a U.S. firm’s reputation – and even compromise its entire market strategy – if not handled sensitively. A U.S. company should at all costs avoid being viewed as lacking adequate commitment to its Japanese business relationships. Japanese agents may request “parting compensation” in the event the foreign exporter decides to dissolve a business relationship. Since this is a common practice in this market, U.S. companies should address this eventuality prior to executing a contract.
Part of the difficulty in choosing a Japanese agent is assuring that the agent will devote sufficient attention to expanding the market share of the U.S. product. Distributors that target only limited, high-price niches, that are bound by strong ties to one particular industry group (keiretsu), that fail to compete directly with established Japanese products, or that are not prepared to pursue volume sales for the U.S. exporter should be avoided. U.S. firms should also be wary of distributors that handle competing lines or are subject to other potential conflicts of interest.
Japan's business world is small and relatively concentrated, both politically and economically. Business relationships are formed, conducted, nurtured, and ended with an extraordinary degree of attention to appearances and decorum. Caution and diplomacy are therefore warranted if an overseas company wishes to sever its relationship with its existing Japanese agent or distributor.
Selling Factors/Techniques. As in the United States, sustained personal contact with customers is usually essential for successful market entry and expansion in Japan. Having a visiting U.S. company representative accompany the firm’s Japanese agent or distributor on visits to existing or potential customers strengthens the potential for sales. Such joint sales calls demonstrate commitment to clients and provide unparalleled opportunities to obtain market feedback.
how to negotiate and maintain relationships with Japanese
face-to-face can significantly increase a U.S. company’s chances for
success in the market. Japanese language skills and familiarity with
the nation’s culture and etiquette can be invaluable. Be prepared to
attend after-hours social events: these informal gatherings go a
long way towards establishing mutual trust and understanding between
new partners. It has been said that many business deals in Japan are
made “after five,” though this does not mitigate the important roles
that price, quality and after-sales service play in making an export
Initial contact between Japanese firms is usually formal and made at the executive level, with more detailed negotiations often delegated to the working level. Typically, the point of an initial meeting is to allow the parties to become acquainted, to establish the interest of the calling party, and to allow both sides an opportunity to size each other up. Don’t expect too much from a first visit — sometimes the actual business subject may be overtaken by more mundane topics. A series of meetings with a large number of Japanese company representatives is common, as part of the “sizing up” process.
Business negotiations may proceed slowly, as the Japanese side might prefer to avoid an agreement rather than risk being criticized later for making a mistake. While many Japanese business executives speak some English, a skilled and well-briefed interpreter is essential to prevent communication problems. A good interpreter is worth the expense. Firms that choose to skimp on or forego this expense not only significantly increase their chances for miscommunication, but also risk sending a message that they lack commitment to their Japanese counterpart and to the Japanese market. Though there are some U.S. firms that do business in Japan without a signed contract, the use of written contracts between U.S. and Japanese firms is an accepted practice. Contracts satisfy tax, customs, and other legal requirements. Japanese companies prefer shorter and more general contracts as opposed to lengthy, detailed documents spelling out every right and obligation in detail. Personal contact and relationships are important in Japan, and a contract should be viewed as just one element of a broader effort to create a mutual understanding of obligations and expectations.
U.S. companies must overcome a number of challenges such as language, international shipping costs, customs regulations, tariffs on several consumer items, and other issues when marketing directly to Japanese consumers (e.g., sizes in metric). In addition, U.S. companies should be aware of the Personal Information Protection Law, implemented in 2005, which restricts the sharing/trading of personal data. It can be difficult for U.S. catalogers to obtain effective mailing or contact lists.
Pricing. The strength of the yen, streamlining of distribution channels, and Japanese economic reforms have recently helped open doors for U.S. products by improving their price competitiveness. However, landed cost is only one part of a total pricing scheme and should not be the only consideration for U.S. firms interested in exporting to Japan. Distribution markups often cause imports to price at levels far higher than comparable domestic products. For instance, shipping costs between the port of Osaka and Tokyo have been shown to much higher than shipping costs from the U.S. West Coast to Osaka. A good example is imported U.S. apparel products, where street prices are often three to four times FOB.
Japanese manufacturers traditionally set prices at each level of the distribution chain and enforce compliance using complicated rebate systems. Such price maintenance has recently come under pressure from consumers who are demanding lower prices, and from manufacturers who themselves find the rebate system burdensome. As distribution practices have undergone reform, costs have come down and distributors have gained additional flexibility in selecting and purchasing items.
Distribution of imported goods has also traditionally followed a multi-layered system, with established lines of product flow and pricing structures that vary according to the types of services provided by the importer or wholesaler (e.g., inventory, advertisement costs, packaging costs, financing, acceptance of unsold/returned goods, etc). As with the distribution of Japanese manufactured goods, increased price sensitivity among Japanese consumers has led to more and more middlemen either being forced to cut their markups or eliminated from the distribution chain altogether.
Some Japanese retailers now import products directly in order to offer lower retail prices. However, U.S. suppliers should understand that retailers usually import smaller quantities, and other importers and wholesalers usually are uninterested in representing products that are imported directly by retailers.
Finally, U.S. exporters should also consider yen/dollar fluctuations in their product pricing and sales strategies. Starting in late 2008 and continuing to early 2010, the yen has risen significantly against the dollar, boosting the price competitiveness of U.S. goods.
Sales Service/Customer Support. Sales cycle are crucially important in Japan. This begins with establishing a close working relationship with, and long-term commitment to, a U.S. exporter’s potential Japanese partners. Every effort should be made to answer technical questions in detail, to ensure that delivery dates are met, and to maintain absolute clarity regarding all issues from initial order through shipment and delivery. Problems most often arise from misunderstandings, lack of communication, language difficulties, and differing business practices.
The arrival times and condition of shipments are critical. Shipments should arrive on time, they should be well packed, and they must not be damaged upon arrival. Customs documentation should be complete and accurate; if it is not, the entry of the merchandise could be delayed or, in certain cases, the merchandise might be returned to the sender. Japanese buyers are highly concerned with the quality of packing and poor packaging may lead to market entry problems. Missed deadlines and the arrival of goods damaged through poor packaging and shipping practices are interpreted as a “message” from, and about, the supplier sales cycle are crucially important in Japan. This begins with establishing a close working relationship with, and long-term commitment to, a U.S. exporter’s potential Japanese partners. Every effort should be made to answer technical questions in detail, to ensure that delivery dates are met, and to maintain absolute clarity regarding all issues from initial order through shipment and delivery. Problems most often arise from misunderstandings, lack of communication, language difficulties, and differing business practices.
The arrival times and condition of shipments are critical. Shipments should arrive on time, they should be well packed, and they must not be damaged upon arrival. Customs documentation should be complete and accurate; if it is not, the entry of the merchandise could be delayed or, in certain cases, the merchandise might be returned to the sender. Japanese buyers are highly concerned with the quality of packing and poor packaging may lead to market entry problems. Missed deadlines and the arrival of goods damaged through poor packaging and shipping practices are interpreted as a “message” from, and about, the supplier.